The Hoaxes of Evolution: or The Non-missing Links.
The fossil record is filled with amazing creatures whose complete or near complete skeletons are physical proof of their existence. There is no dispute in this area. But what of the fossils that supposedly prove the existence of so called early man or man in his infancy so to speak. Well there have been a great many proofs put forth to make the case for such a creature. What are they? check out this list. In order of appearance we have:
Between 1908 and 1912 parts of a human skull, some canine teeth and a primitive ape like jaw were excavated in Sussex England. from the same pit were also found other fossils including elephant, mastodon, hippopotimus, rhinoceros, beaver and deer. Out of skull and jawbone fragments, Charles Dawson reconstructed what became known as Piltdown Man. For 40 years this evidence served as proof of the link between man and ape and was never questioned. Indeed over 500 doctoral dissertations were written concerning this skull. But in 1953 the hoax was exposed as Kenneth Oakley, Joseph Weiner and Wilfred L Gros Clark exposed the skull as a fraud. The skullcap was fully human. And in 1982 the lower jaw fragments, including the teeth were found to be from a juvenile female Orangutan. The jaw had been chemically treated to make it appear to match the skull. The jawbone turned out to be that of a modern orangutan. As for the other fossils, well these had been planted from other areas including Malta adn Tunisia. Even as early as 1916 there were reports of tampering when dental anatomists noticed that there were artificial abrasions on the teeth which were cleary file marks.
Next we have:
Boule’s Neanderthal Man
Neanderthal skulls were first discovered in Engis Belgium in 1829 and in Forbes’ Quarry, Gibraltar in 1848. Then in 1856 in the Neander Valley near Dusseldorf Germany, a skullcap, two femora three bones from a right arm and two from a left, along with a scapula and some ribs were dug up and given to amateur naturalist Johann Carl Fuhlrott who turned the fossils over to anatomist Hermann Schallffhausen. The discovery was jointly announced in 1857. French anthropologist Marcellin Boule published a series of scientific papers from 1911 to 1913. He also reconstructed a skeleton in 1915 and intentionally mis-arranged the foot bones so that the big toe diverged from the other toes to look like an opposing thumb. The knee joint was misplaced to give a bent-knee look. The spine was misshapen so it couldn’t stand upright and the head was placed in an unbalanced position too far forward. Boule’s model of Neanderthal man was placed on display in the Field Museum of Natural History in Chicago for 44 years before the mistakes were discovered! After the mistakes were disclosed, they kept it on display for another 20 years until they created a new Neanderthal model. What did they do with the old inaccurate model? Instead of throwing it in the garbage can where it belonged, they moved it to the second floor of the museum and displayed a new sign, “An Alternate View of Neanderthal.” But what was “Neanderthal man?” He was a man who suffered from severe arthritis. Hense the disfiguration.
We turn now to:
In 1922 a gentleman by the name of Harold Cook found a single molar tooth in Nebraska. It was examined and declared to be the tooth of an ancient ape man by paleontologist Henry Osborn from the Museum of Natural History. Nebraska man was reconstructed from a single tooth! Talk about your wild guesses. What is even more amazing–the tooth ended up belonging to what was deemed an extinct pig! And then in 1972 the species of extinct pig was found still alive in Paraguay. A double hoax!
Java Man was reconstructed from a skullcap, thighbone, and 2 molar teeth. Dr. Eugene DuBois found the thighbone 50 feet away from the skullcap, but assumed it was the same individual. Then, after discovering human skulls at the same level near his Java Man discovery, he hid the human skulls under the floorboards of his bedroom for 26 years. Before his death DuBois confessed that he had not found the missing link and admitted that Java Man was probably a giant gibbon. Yet another hoax!
This missing link was found in the southern Spanish town of Orce in 1982, and hailed as the oldest fossilized human remains ever found in Europe. One year later officials admitted the skull fragment was not human, but probably came from a 4-month old donkey. Scientists had said the skull belonged to a 17 year old man who lived 900,000 to 1.6 million years ago, and had even made very detailed drawings to represent what he would have looked like. (“Skull fragment may not be human”, Knoxville News-Sentinel, 1983)
What do you think?